I made a single batch of six biscuits. To find out what difference it makes, I made two batches: Three of four people liked the thick-cut biscuits better. You're not going to absolutely ruin the biscuits by "overworking" them. I put three biscuits on a baking mat and 3 on a bare cookie sheet and baked at 425 F. Can you tell a difference? 19 days ago, Yes yes yes! Yes, you can certainly add a little flour to make the dough easier to handle. What is best? Cream cheese is a decent (but inferior) alternative if you're worried about fat content (cream cheese has about half as many calories from fat as butter or shortening). My wife thought the 350 F biscuits were a little tougher. A demonstrator uses biscuits to show children that some solids are made of tiny pieces and can be poured. Buttermilk isn't blow-everyone-away better, but it might be a little better. Chemistry and Food Sources, How to Substitute for Baking Powder and Baking Soda, 10 Examples of Mixtures (Heterogeneous and Homogeneous). If the ingredients are high quality, measured carefully, and mixed as they should be, chemical magic happens in the oven to make great cookies. Answer In a humid environment, cookies can absorb water vapor, making them soft. Just mix them with a fork (or anything else handy). Chemistry's Role The two main components of an Oreo is cocoa or chocolate, and the white cream on the inside of it. Would taste-testers be able to tell the difference? There are several chemical and physical changes which contribute to the colouring of the biscuit surface. Milk or buttermilk? ACS Reactions. It turns out that for biscuits, it doesn't make a difference. If your cookies never turn out perfect, understanding their chemistry may help improve your technique. Some biscuit recipes call for butter. 18 days ago. Are biscuits fluffier with more or less fat? A ratio of 1/2 cup of butter to 2 cups of flour (1:4) seems to work pretty well. on Introduction, Baking Soda needs an acid (like buttermilk), Baking Powder is Baking Soda with the acid already mixed in (so you don't need buttermilk). And when you put both cream of tartar and baking soda, you have made; baking powder!Chemistry SHOULD be fun! Share it with us! I agree: an experiment to verify this would be great. I love writing, leather working, cooking, and playing board games. Or maybe you just want the richest, crumbliest taste and texture possible. COOKIE CHEMISTRY Cookies make a great vehicle to study chemistry and the scientific method. in this case, it appears that the biscuit structure is just a lot more stable (structurally speaking) when there's less butter. for answering a question i was about to ask. Or are some of the mysterious steps in these recipes as arbitrary and nonsensical as cutting off both ends of the ham? This picture, taken right after the biscuits had finished baking, shows the same thing: Both taste testers (my wife and I) thought that batches 1 and 2 (with only a tiny amount of baking powder) were noticeably denser and moister than the others. It all turns out to be crumbly biscuits. There are many flavors of chocolate but Nabisco uses the formula of (H8N4C7O2) Which combines eight hydrogen atoms, four nitrogen atoms, seven carbon atoms and two oxygen atoms for delicious chocolate ready for consumption. Note: Metric conversions (thanks to ZaKKoS for writing these up): First Prize in the Explore Science Contest, Participated in the Apocalypse Preparedness Contest. Or maybe you're curious about some tests I haven't done yet, like: If that's the case, then check out my blog, where I've posted more installments of my continued quest for the "perfect" biscuit (as well as info on my novels, short stories, other food experiments, and book reviews). 1 year ago I made a single batch of biscuits and baked two biscuits at 425 F and two biscuits at 350 F. It took a little longer to finish at 350 F (20 minutes vs 15 minutes), but the resulting biscuits were almost indistinguishable. I cooked both batches on the same cookie sheet at 425 F, so baking conditions were identical. Let’s have a look at them one by one. The Science of Bakery Products is an interesting and easy to read book, aimed at anyone with an interest in everyday chemistry. Thank you,Bautar. Almost sounds like what you'd expect with a gluten free flour. So how do you make the best, flakiest, most optimal biscuit ever? Two of eight people thought the milk biscuits were maybe a little "saltier", but couldn't decide which they liked better. It turns out that it's not. Sometimes I used "real" store-bought buttermilk. In our Revision Notes of Chemistry Class 12 of Chapter 9, students will read in detail about: Additional compounds. Reply I would think if it works, might be great for camping. Also flour, sugar, egg, milk or cream and fat, usually butter. But margarine is usually several times cheaper than butter, and some argue that it's healthier. But if you want to save a few bucks and a few calories, margarine is a great alternative that may even make the biscuits taste better. So what difference does baking powder really make? The consistency of the dough may vary depending on the fat used as different fats have different water contents. Biscuits were significantly (p < .05) different in their nutrient composition, with the crude protein, crude fiber, ash contents, and dietary fiber content increasing as the PPF level increased. Since 2015, the School has been the proud holder of a Bronze Athena SWAN Award This can be the hardest step. Well, that depends on your taste. Biscuits, cookies, and crackers have a cereal base of at least 60%. Thanks so much! These are the questions that plague biscuit makers everywhere, and they are the questions that I have set out, over the past 13 months, to answer once and for all. Or something. Does the amount of salt really matter down to the 1/3rd of a teaspoon? I use it whenever at all possible including for scones, cakes, and pancakes. I had to use the dough scraper to get under each "cut out" and use a knife or fork to pull away the excess dough around the actual biscuit shape. 2 years ago. The humidity of the surroundings affects cookies after they have cooled. Buttermilk isn't a straight swap for milk. One of four voted for the buttermilk biscuit (because of "better taste"), One of four voted for the milk biscuit (because, "the other one has better taste, but this one has better texture"). But how does that affect the final product? (I actually use the plain greek yogurt I always have in the fridge, mixed about 1/2 and 1/2 w/milk; close enough! Is it better to bake for a short time at a high temperature, or for a long time at a low temperature? There isn’t enough butter to make a … Making good biscuits is easy. Butter or shortening? The Difference Between Baking Soda and Baking Powder, How Baking Soda Works to Make Baked Goods Rise, What Is Gluten? As you can see in the pictures, the dough that was kneaded only 5x didn't rise quite as much as the other biscuits. Not a failure, but the dough was just a bit too "wet" I think?? Two of five thought the milk biscuits had a little better taste. The basic characteristic that separates a biscuit, cookie, or cracker from other baked products, such as bread or cake, is a moisture content below 5%. The chemical changes that occurred during baking help the cookie keep its shape. How does the amount of liquid affect the final product? To find out, I made five batches of biscuits that were identical except for the amount of milk used. 4 months ago. I've tried to be as scientific as possible by: In this instructable, I will show the results of these experiments and my results for the "ultimate" biscuit recipe. Is it really key to knead exactly 15 times, or to use a baking mat, or to use buttermilk? Reply The gluten in the flour forms a polymer mesh that works with the albumin protein from the egg white and the emulsifier lecithin from the egg yolk to form the dough and support the bubbles. The chemical changes that occurred during baking help the cookie keep its shape. I made a single batch of biscuits and baked two biscuits at 425 F and two biscuits at 350 F. It took a little longer to finish at 350 F (20 minutes vs 15 minutes), but the resulting biscuits were almost indistinguishable. When the industries face a problem of shortage of raw materials supply the cost of the biscuits will increase and hence be the reason for change in cost price structure. In my quest to find the perfect sugar cookie for decorating, I have learned a lot about how individual cookie ingredients behave in a recipe. Rising doesn't just make cookies taller. Reply Blending the fat in with a food processor. I'm trying to get a biscuit whose center is soft, fluffy and for want of an exact description, spongy.....no crumbs!! Individual chapters focus on the science of breads, pastry, biscuits, wafers and cakes. Still others swear by cream cheese. The process of creaming is, simply put, just mixing butter and sugar together. One of the principle ingredients for biscuits is wheat flour. This was a tough one. Heat breaks the sucrose into the simple sugars glucose and fructose, giving each cookie a shiny, light brown crust. :-), Answer Food Chemistry in the High School Classroom Cook up some chemistry learning. It kind of rose and collapsed. I did not tell my guests what the difference in the batches was until everyone had told me their opinion. My short stories have been appea…, changing only one thing at a time (the amount of fat or the type of liquid, for example), testing multiple types of biscuits on the same day (so that taste testers can say "biscuit A is better than biscuit B" rather than having to say, "Yeah, I think these taste better than the ones you made last week!"). HOWEVER, I had one issue that didn't work well for me. One of eight people thought the butter biscuits tasted slightly saltier and slightly better. This combo makes a much more tender dough. Question And this kind of of experimentation keeps it so! Using a biscuit and crushing it into tiny pieces helps children see that, even though a solid is broken up, it is still a solid. This could lead to weak cookies or to cookies that fall flat when they come out of the oven. How are you baking them? What’s the reaction? For the past year, I've performed dozens of biscuit experiments. My favorite was the middle batch, with 1.5 teaspoons of baking powder, but my wife thought this one was a little too dense. Have you considered tweaking a recipe to use powdered buttermilk? Squish it. I didn't tell anyone what the difference between biscuits was until after they'd made their choice. This is why undercooked cookies (or other baked goods) fall in the center. How about baking temperature? Thanks! I've noticed dry buttermilk with the regular dry milk in the grocery section. If so, up the baking powder, decrease the liquid and butter content, and knead them a bit more. The aim of this work was to produce biscuits from wheat flour substituted with different amounts of wheat sprout powder (2.5–7.5%). What reasons did the un-witting margarine lovers give? Look here! Cream cheese might be an especially good option if you're making biscuits and gravy (where the biscuit is more of a vessel for the gravy anyway). Just use a pastry cutter to blend flour, baking powder, and a dash of salt with butter. For details see this Catalyst article: https://www. By the time you get to 45 kneads, you're starting to get tired, and the dough is resisting you. What Is Cream of Tartar or Potassium Bitartrate? We'll raise them exactly the same, but over time, Evil Stanley will undoubtedly begin to live up to his name because of a subtle difference in the way the world treats him. The caramelisation of different sugars occurs at differen… If you're a purist and just can't stomach the "fake crap", then by all means use butter. Montreal is not a city where buying buttermilk is that easy, and I wouldn't use it often enough to use it up if I found it. A standard cake recipe typically includes flour, a type of sweetener, eggs, some kind of fat, a liquid, a leavening agent to help it rise and flavoring (like vanilla, cocoa powder or cinnamon) [source: What's Cooking America].The ingredients interact with each other … The science of biscuit baking | Recipes | rapidcityjournal.com If you look up a hundred biscuit recipes, you'll get some commonalities... and a lot of specific, mysterious "key" steps that sound more like potion-making instructions from a Harry Potter book than a real recipe. Squishing the fat around with a fork until it's a bunch of little pieces coated in flour. In the 19th century, with the Industrial Revolution the mass production of cakes, biscuits and jelly began. Follow this classic chocolate chip cookie recipe and learn about the ingredients and the reactions that occur throughout the mixing and baking process. My flour experiments indicated that there is a lot of leeway on the precise amount of flour, so adjust as needed and expect very similar results. Oven temperature is 425 F. Batch 2: 3/4 cup of milk (3:8 ratio) Batch 3: 1 cup of milk (1:2 ratio) Batch 4: 1-1/4 cups of milk (5:8 ratio) Batch 5: 1-1/2 cups of milk (3:4 ratio) I then took a time-lapse video of the biscuits as they baked. I'm a 76 year old retired male, and love food and love to cook.....but I'm fairly new to baking breads/biscuits/etc. If the cookies aren't devoured immediately, the chemistry doesn't end with baking. Super-Flaky Buttermilk Biscuits. I'll put it on the list. One was 80% sure, and the last (a smart alec) was 64% sure. Help? Yes, it's more exact to measure the actual mass (or weight) of your ingredients than it is to measure volume, but this experiment shows that huge variations in the amount of flour per liquid can still result in good biscuits. But the biscuits with 1 cup of butter seemed too rich to my wife and I, and I suspect that after cooling down, they would be dense and gross. You could also add a bit of cream of tartar to the Baking Soda. Scones are a totally different bread. To find out, I made two batches of biscuits that were identical except for the type of fat used. The very dry biscuits were really good, as were the very wet "drop" biscuits. What is the true key to flakiness? Buttermilk doesn't seem to make a difference. I recommend reading Harold McGee's On Food and Cooking for a better understanding of the chemistry involved in cooking and baking. You can substitute baking powder for baking soda (since you're just making double-sure there's enough acid for the reaction), but you can't substitute baking soda for baking powder (since that acid needs to come from somewhere). I was cooking for a crowd, so I cooked each batch separately, one after the other, and asked my guests to let me know which batch tasted the best. Usually its in the ballpark of 1/3 or 1/2 cup per 2 cups of flour, which is about half the amount of fat per flour that you put into a pie crust. Heating sodium bicarbonate causes it to decompose into water and carbon dioxide: Carbon dioxide gas and water vapor form the bubbles which make cookies rise. get fabulous ginger biscuits at the end. You can see this well in the picture of the final biscuits as well: Surprisingly, all of the biscuits were extremely good. I've read recipes that insist you only stir 15x after adding the milk and others that say you should knead only 5-10x. I hope you found this useful. on Step 5, Enjoyed your experiments very muchI've been experimenting myself, but every variation I try seems to turn out crumbly which I hate. Three of the five that chose margarine biscuits were only 20% sure of their choice. The biscuit with very little butter wasn't as soft and flaky, but it was more structurally sound. When you take the cookies out of the oven, the hot water gases in the cookie contract. No tips needed. Others call for very little liquid, so it's difficult to mix the dough without over-kneading it. I'm a camper & frequently make biscuits in a Dutch oven; your experiments will help create a recipe that is much more "portable" than my usual recipe! When you take the cookies out of the oven, the hot water gases in the cookie contract. Upon my return home, I attempted to make some biscuits, only to have my first batch fail. 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